Eurofound’s platform economy database provides information on initiatives and court cases that exist or have been implemented in relation to activities in the platform economy. This database provides metadata for each entry, such as geographical scope, year, type of initiative, actors involved, sector and companies concerned. Initiatives include legal instruments such as legislative changes or court decisions, as well as voluntary interventions undertaken by different stakeholders to address issues around platform work.
3F is a Danish trade union that aims to secure better wage and working conditions for its members. In April 2018, 3F and Hilfr signed the first collective agreement on platform work in Denmark. Meanwhile, 3F has been active in protecting food delivery riders in Denmark. 3F has continuously supported the Wolt Workers Group (WWG) to protect Wolt riders. In February 2021, 3F and the Danish Chamber of Commerce (Dansk Erhverv) reached a nationwide collective agreement for food delivery riders in Denmark.
In April 2018, the Danish trade union 3F and platform for cleaning services Hilfr signed the first collective agreement on platform work in Denmark. The agreement entered into force on 1 August 2018 and covers the so-called ‘Super Hilfrs’ (employee status). If a new worker on the platform does not choose to become a Super Hilfr when signing up in the platform, he or she will automatically become a Super Hilfr after 100 hours of work on the platform (unless he or she objects to it). Workers are paid at least DKR 141.2 per hour (€19) and an additional DKR 20 (€2.70) as ‘welfare supplement’. The latter must be set aside by the worker for sickness, retirement, holidays and similar. Furthermore, the agreement specifies there will be an information exchange between the platform and tax authorities.
An assessment of the agreement of early 2020 finds a high level of work satisfaction among Super Hilfrs, including earnings and the security provided by the agreement. From the platform’s perspective, the agreement has improved its visibility and branding as a socially responsible actor.
Meanwhile, 3F has been actively working with the Wolt Workers Group (WWG), a Copenhagen-based worker organisation, to protect food delivery platform riders in Denmark. Together with WWG, they have successfully negotiated with Wolt to introduce a pay rise and offer riders accident insurance from 2020, and supported Wolt couriers’ protest against Wolt’s recent change in the payment model which lowered the minimum pay for short deliveries and cancelled the weekend delivery bonus. Detailed information of the Wolt Workers Group can be found.
In February 2021, 3F and the Danish Chamber of Commerce (Dansk Erhverv) reached a nationwide collective agreement for food delivery riders valid from 2021 to 2023. The agreement will give riders a regulated wage, pension and sick pay, and recognise riders’ negotiated rights. Just Eat has signed the agreement.
In detail, the agreement provides: * A base hourly wage of DKK 124.20 (€16.6) from 1 March 2021, and it will rise to DKK 127.35 (€17.10) from 1 March 2022; * A normal weekly working time set to a minimum of 8 hours and up to 37 hours, with over time allowed up to 44 hours in total; * Provision of a free vehicle (an allowance if the employee has his/her own), work clothes and safety equipment.
Further reading: * 3F secures ground-breaking national sectoral agreement for delivery riders
Strengths and Weaknesses The collective agreements negotiated by 3F demonstrate that traditional industrial relations approaches can be adapted to regulate working conditions for platform workers. They also show that a consensus-based approach is possible for regulating wages and working conditions for platform workers and that platform companies can also act as responsible employers. Consequently, the collective agreements minimise the potential disruptive effects of the platform economy on national labour markets and on established institutional arrangements.
A key challenge that remains is the lack of union organisation among platform workers in Denmark. This leaves the unions with little information about the actual needs and wishes of platform workers, when having to negotiate on their behalf.
Additionally, another challenge for collective bargaining agreements stems from the Danish competition rules. In 2020, the Danish Competition Council (DCC) assessed that the minimum hourly fee constitutes a concerted practice for the services mediated through Hilfr which might limit the competition. As a result, Hilfr offered to remove the minimum hourly fee for their so-called Freelance Hilfrs (not covered by the collective agreement) and committed to consider the so-called Super Hilfrs as employees in relation to competition law by ensuring a legal subordination relationship and bearing the financial risk of the cleaning work.
27 September 2022
The platform economy is one of those moving targets, which, despite receiving increasing media and policy attention, has proven difficult to regulate. Given the heterogeneity of employment relationships, business models, types of platform work and cross-border issues, this is not surprising.Read
15 December 2021
Technological change is accelerating as the capacity of electronic devices to digitally store, process and communicate information expands. Digitalisation is transforming the EU economy and labour markets: nearly one-third of EU workplaces are categorised as highly digitalised. What are the implications of the digital revolution for employment and work?Read
2 December 2021
The rapid rise of the platform economy has led to a marked transformation of European labour markets, and existing regulatory frameworks and voluntary initiatives have yet to catch up. While platform work offers opportunities for workers and employers and potentially contributes to innovation, economic growth and competitiveness in the EU, it has been criticised from the beginning because of the poor employment and working conditions often experienced by workers.Read
24 February 2021
While 2020 may come to be seen as the year platform work gathered pace and started to go mainstream – thanks in large part to COVID-19 containment measures sparking an increase in food and grocery delivery – 2021 could be the year that regulation of platform work is set in motion.Read